The “Rudolf Steiner School of Lugano Origlio” is an authorized school for the IB® Diploma Program.
Our school has completed the authorization process as IB World School.
IB World Schools share a common philosophy – a commitment to high quality, inspiring international education – which we believe is important for our students.
The International Baccalaureate® (IB) Diploma Program (DP) is a program aimed at students aged 16-19. It is accepted by leading universities around the world.
What the DP offers students
The program includes six thematic groups and the basic curriculum. The latter includes the theory of knowledge (TdC), creativity, action, service (CAS) and memory.
Through the main curriculum of the Diploma Program, students reflect on the nature of knowledge, conduct independent research and carry out a project that often includes community service.
The DP explained in detail
What does the IB diploma consist of?
The IB baccalaureate is an internationally recognized diploma in English, valid for university admission in more than 80 countries around the world. It was developed in the mid-sixties in Geneva by an international group of educators and is now widespread in more than 4,600 schools worldwide and involves about 1.5 million students. The initial impulse was to create an international school in the deepest sense of the term. The need was to accommodate those children who, due to the work needs of their parents, were forced to travel and change countries very often, in a well-known and comfortable school situation. In a sense the same school all over the world …
< / strong>
IB Learner Profile – the student profile
The IB pedagogical path is based, as a founding principle, on the IB Learner Profile (literally the profile of the learner); this profile is an ideal project imagined on the students of today understood as the women and men of tomorrow; immersed in the world and aware of the deep relationships that exist in humanity and between man and nature. The IB Learner Profile unfolds through 10 characteristics to be developed and stimulated in students, as human beings, and on which to base the entire didactic and pedagogical project. Children must be led towards curiosity about their surroundings (Inquirers attribute, literally those who ask, the inquirers); the curiosity and the desire to learn is expressed in a knowledge that develops through an element of local and global awareness (Knowledgeable attribute, those who know) and this approach must serve as a continuous element over the course of a lifetime. It is thought that ideally the human being of tomorrow is an eternal curious person, a person with a continuous yearning for learning (life-long learner). What is the wealth of acquired knowledge used for? To a concrete and critical development of their own thinking (Thinkers attribute , thinkers): from what they learn, from their cultural and knowledge baggage, children ask themselves questions and problems and develop the ability to elaborate critical connections that are also the basis of autonomous and independent decisions based on solid ethical foundations. They are continually pushed to confront the present world and this must pass through a solid communication skills in the various areas in which they engage (Communicators attribute, communicators).
Each element learned, each subject addressed, each test taken contains within itself its precise communication possibilities: these alternatives are explored within the individual disciplines and in a more open way in multidisciplinary comparison. The IB pedagogical system is solidly based on ethical and moral principles that guide the growth of students by constituting the real guiding star of their school growth; principles such as honesty, moral integrity, tolerance, respect for each other and for diversity are part of the student profile and are embodied in the characteristic called Principled em > (endowed with principles). The ethical element is closely linked to the mental openness that each of us manages to cultivate during our life: this openness ( Open-minded attribute , being open to mind) can be cared for and sprouted through the study of different cultures when dealing with history or opposing points of view when talking about ecology and global issues in general.
This gaze represents for a student a real paradigm of experiential growth: mental openness is not imposed but made manifest through the study and deepening of the different “colors” of the “palette” of global society. If a boy is inclined to develop the ethical element in himself, he will also have to learn to attend his emotional intimacy, his soul in an assiduous and conscious way. In this sense, the IB Learner Profile mentions two aspects that have their roots in the deepest element of our personality: we must learn to show empathy, compassion and respect (Caring attribute, the one who cares) towards the world and we must learn to balance the various parts of the human being (physical, intellectual and emotional element) within us and in comparison with other beings humans and with the whole world (Balanced attribute, the one who has balance). One of the most important elements along the growth and learning process is the constant possibility of failing and making mistakes. The eventuality of error and failure are an integral element of every human action; they represent an element of wealth if they are approached with a constructive and conscious spirit. The positive meaning of “being able to make mistakes” is very important in an era, the present one, in which, from various cultural, social and economic spheres, opposite messages arrive to children, declined to the extreme need to always win, to be infallible, strong, beautiful, solid and decisive.
Human reality is very different but, not for this reason, we must give up on initiative (Risk-takers attribute, those who take risks). Ultimately, everything that gushes and germinates during the years of graduation materializes in a profound aptitude for reflection. Reflection understood as the ability to offer one’s balanced and tolerant thought to life, to oneself and to the world (Reflective attribute, being reflective). This reflective element, necessary in any educational process that can be defined as healthy, concretizes the entire path of the graduation years and results in a profound and real ability to become human beings of balance between strengths and weaknesses, errors and successes, understandings and misunderstandings. , skills and inadequacies, between what is familiar and what is distantly, between what we desire and what we really achieve, between concreteness and abstraction. A human being on the move, in the making who can face the world after school with cultural and interior tools that make him a being of resonance and synchrony with the world.
< / em>
Approaches to learning (ATL) – Approaches to learning
Other fundamental elements of the teaching environment of the IB diploma are represented by the in-depth methodological and pedagogical study of teaching and learning methods. In this context, reference is made to a literature (Approaches to teaching and learning in the Diploma Program) which is continuously updated and in which, starting from a solid base of past and present universal pedagogical bibliography, the he teaching and learning approach unfold through fundamental and primary stages in which one should never lose sight of the needs and talents of the individual student. The approach to learning ( ATL – Approach to learning) is aimed at certain competences (skills) that children cultivate and improve during school activities. The concept of “skills” in this case broadens the meaning of simple competence or ability to assume a deeper one linked to the attitudes that, in the most disparate life situations that children will encounter in their future, they will experience almost like spontaneous stimuli which, aided and cared for during the graduation years, will flow into a real ability to behave in the world in a balanced, effective and decisive way. These skills are inextricably linked to the IB learner Profile but represent a more concrete, less ideal and more observable diversion from it during daily school activities: thinking skills, communication skills, social skills, self-management skills and research skills.
Approaches to teaching (ATL) – Approaches to teaching
How can the teaching method reach such a profound goal? According to the IB model, the teaching approach (ATT – Approach to teaching) always moves in the direction of the student, it is never self-referential and rarely frontal. The experiential element becomes a constant not only in the scientific field in which laboratory exercises take on great importance, but more generally the experience becomes a daily process of observation of an attitude made up of a continuous encounter with the contents not so much through the explanation but more in a constant attendance of the various languages that each discipline contains. In History, for example, knowing how to handle primary and secondary sources shows how difficult and complex it is to determine the real succession of events that by custom we consider established. In literature, the study of literary currents passes from the encounter fundamental and preliminary with the texts that refer to these currents. In Physics and Biology, the study of nature is experimented starting from observation and, in this context, the appropriate language and tools are developed to be able to handle matter. There are specific strategies in this sense that have to do with different areas in which the teacher’s activity comes to life.
• Teaching based on raising questions in students.
• Teaching focused and aimed at reaching concepts understood as something much broader than content. A concept is universal and comes from an assiduous experience in the world of content but it contains within itself a personal and profound element in which each human being finds himself.
• Teaching made of continuous comparisons between what is local and what is global.
• Teaching based on a stimulus for collaboration between children (group work) and between students and teachers.
• differentiated and inclusive teaching considering everyone’s skills and everyone’s different needs.
• Teaching based on evaluation understood as a formative and / or summative process according to needs and situations but never based on an element of competition and comparison (norm-referenced assessment) and on the single growth path that a single student undertakes (criterion-related assessment).
< / strong>
An overview of the IB Program Diploma
In all areas of reference IB, for teachers, students, parents and anyone interested, there is a vast availability of specific bibliography and reference accessible for free and all. In this sense, teaching students the ethical value of the sources and research work that the world of culture carries out on a daily basis is of enormous importance. There is a specific intent in trying to convey to them the idea of academic honesty (Academic Honesty) which is expressed in the requests for authenticity and originality that are made in the various subjects: homework, research, exams. Each element of knowledge on the IB pedagogical path is shared openly and clearly with students and parents. Each area is explained and taken care of in a clear and shareable way, each step requires specific requirements, each evaluation opportunity (internal, external, research work) has its own precise set of criteria.
Students are enabled to know in advance and in a transparent way what the request will be. The subjects of the DP are 6 taken from the different disciplinary sectors. Each subject is taught either in Standard Level (SL) modality which requires a total of 150 hours in the two years, or in High Level modality (HL) with a total of 240 hours in the two years. In the phase in which our School finds itself, at the beginning of a journey and a new experience, a study plan was devised that was as broad as possible and, at the same time, achievable with the resources present at the present time . For the first years the subjects selected are: History, Italian Language and Literature, Biology, English, Mathematics and, optionally, either French or Physics. Each subject has its own specific internal tests (Internal assessment) corrected and validated by the Origlio teachers according to the procedures and criteria indicated by the IB, and external exams (External Assessment) corrected externally by IB examiners. These tests, the final exams, are held in the same form all over the world within 24 hours of the same day. Different universities around the world have different demands in terms of admission scores for IB students. Within the group of teachers involved in DP there is a figure (University Counseleor) designed specifically to help young people in choosing the post-graduate course.
< / strong>
IB Core – The core of the IB Diploma Program
In addition to the subjects of the various disciplinary sectors, there is the Core (nucleus) of the DP study plan which is composed of three fundamental elements for obtaining the diploma. In these activities, the element of evaluation is not particularly important as having carried out the work with care, attention, participation, seriousness and method and having concluded and presented it by the end of the two-year diploma. Such activities constitute oneunique and distinctive peculiarity of the IB diploma; it can be said that they concretize the constituent element in a disciplinary and experiential way. The first element of the Core consists of the CAS (Creativity, Activity, Service) in which the children, supervised by a responsible teacher ( CAS Coordinator), engage in a project that contains or elements of creativity, for example, work with an element artistic or theatrical at the center or more simply an area in which the student experiments the search for new “paths” that open original and personal horizons, or of activities, any project with an active, practical and concrete element , or an experience of service that takes the form of doing something useful for someone else (for example in the social or humanitarian sphere) or for the world (for example in the ecological sphere).
The three components of the CAS can be present together and integrated into the project but the fundamental element is that, under the guidance of the coordinator, the student undertakes this path autonomously and independently. The CAS project also aims to make candidates appealing, i.e. interesting (or attractive) to universities, whose admissions decisions are increasingly based also on the student’s extra-curricular activities .
The second element of the Core is the Theory of Knowledge (Theory of Knowledge – TOK). This discipline, inserted continuously in the school timetable, basically consists of a course in applied philosophy, epistemology, which aims to make students more rational and objective. Its curricular focus is on the different ways and areas of thinking and, in general, on the different types of knowledge and knowledge. In addition to being a separate discipline, TOK enters with its specific elements, in each of the 6 subjects taught. Each discipline has its own language within itself and the TOK makes this language explicit and connects it with the languages and cognitive methods of other subjects, creating a real multidisciplinary network of knowledge in which the student understands the balance between the different points of view. The TOK answers the question: How do we know what we claim to know?
The last element of the Core is the Extended Essay (EE – literally: extended theme) which, over the two years, it engages each student in independent research that results in an academically written paper. The student chooses one of the 6 taught subjects and can, if he deems it interesting, explore contents also external to the didactic program, but in any case concerning the chosen subject. In the school, each subject teacher can be EE Supervisor if a student chooses the subject he teaches. There are specific limits and characteristics that the job must possess. In its entirety, it is presented to the students by the Extended Essay Coordinator who represents a different role than the Supervisor and is responsible for the general coordination of the project. This work, once completed, will be delivered and corrected outside the school by the IB examiners.
< / strong>
Meeting points between IB and Waldorf pedagogy
Each individual role within the IB team can only be carried out after attending specific training courses, held by IB trainers, in which the relative certification is issued. Each teacher participates in a series of Workshops on their subject and at different levels over the years; as well as specific training courses exist and must be attended by the different members of the work team ( DP coordinator, librarian, Extended Essay coordinator, CAS coordinator etc.). Students undertake all the activities of the DP through a precise calendar of deadlines which is agreed with the responsible teachers and which the students are required to organize and respect. This element is very important as it has a deep pedagogical and growth root.
The connection is direct with the skills required of the student (self-management skill) and has the most anthropological meaning in the context of what are defined meta-cognitive attitudes (self-assessment, reflection) which represent a solid link between Waldorf pedagogy and the IB Diploma.
The IB philosophy has, as is clear, many links with Waldorf pedagogy. The profound character of inclusiveness in school activities present in the teaching strategies (ATT), directed towards the need not only to leave no one behind but also to enhance everyone and everyone’s personal talents, undoubtedly represents a solid bridge of connection. The attention paid not only to the intellectual and rational human aspects, but also concentrated to the inner and emotional ones present in the IB Learner Profile connect our thinking to the spiritual and soul element that characterizes the anthropological path of child first, and then the boy in the various seven-year-olds of the Waldorf path. Among other things, it is very original and peculiar that these aspects are explicitly considered within a pedagogical and didactic plan: it is also relevant how both pedagogies presuppose them also in function of the global character that both the Waldorf schools and those IB cover in the world.
The continuous search for ethical globality, tolerance, respect, connection with the world of nature constitute profound points of connection. From the pedagogical point of view, it is very clear that both in the field of teaching and with regard to the element of evaluations in IB pedagogy there is, as already mentioned, a continuous research in an inclusive and non-competitive direction. The very nature of the evaluation becomes experience when its criteria and objectives are shared with the students. Absolutely the phenomenological and observational element constitutes a fundamental starting point for both pedagogical paths: the observation of a phenomenon, so connected to the experiential element, is a fundamental step in the learning process precisely because it makes the student competent in the elaboration of an autonomous and personal thought. The age in which children pass from the 11th to the 12th grade is profoundly characterized by this process. The individualization of thought, the autonomy of judgment, the ability to put one’s knowledge at the service of others and of the world are pillars that support the entire formative and educational process in the journey of a “Waldorf-IB” student in the years of diploma.
Our teachers of the IB Diploma Program